Weiler SM, Pinna F, Wolf T et al.
Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany.
Gastroenterology. Feb 2017.
Many different types of cancer cells have chromosome instability. The hippo pathway leads to phosphorylation of the transcriptional activator yes associated protein 1 (YAP1, YAP), which regulates proliferation and has been associated with development of liver cancer. We investigated the effects of hippo signaling via YAP on chromosome stability and hepatocarcinogenesis in humans and mice.We analyzed transcriptome data from 242 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to search for gene signatures associated with chromosomal instability; we investigated associations with overall survival time and cancer recurrence using Kaplan-Meier curves. We analyzed changes in expression of these signature genes, at mRNA and protein levels, after small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of YAP in Sk-Hep1, SNU182, HepG2 or pancreatic cancer cells as well as incubation with thiostrepton (an inhibitor of forkhead box M1, FOXM1) or verteporfin (inhibitor of the interaction between YAP and TEA domain transcription factor 4 [TEAD4]). We performed co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. We collected liver tissues from mice that express a constitutively active form of YAP (YAP(S127A)) and analyzed gene expression signatures and histo-morphological parameters associated with chromosomal instability. Mice were given injections of thiostrepton and livers were collected and analyzed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, histology, and real-time PCR. We performed immunohistochemical analyses on tissue microarrays of 105 HCCs and 7 non-tumor liver tissues.Gene expression patterns associated with chromosome instability, called CIN25 and CIN70, were detected in HCCs from patients with shorter survival time or early cancer recurrence. TEAD4 and YAP were required for CIN25 and CIN70 signature expression, via induction and binding of FOXM1. Disrupting the interaction between YAP and TEAD4 with verteporfin, or inhibiting FOXM1 with thiostrepton, reduced the chromosome instability gene expression patterns. Hyperplastic livers and tumors from YAP(S127A) mice had increased CIN25 and CIN70 gene expression patterns, aneuploidy, and defects in mitosis. Injection of YAP(S127A) mice with thiostrepton reduced liver overgrowth and signs of chromosomal instability. In human HCC tissues, high levels of nuclear YAP correlated with increased chromosome instability gene expression patterns and aneuploidy.Analyzing cell lines, genetically modified mice, and HCC tissues, we found that YAP cooperates with FOXM1 to contribute to chromosome instability. Agents that disrupt this pathway might be developed as treatments for liver cancer.