Reich M, Klindt C, Deutschmann K et al.
Clinic of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 2017.
TGR5 (G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1, M-Bar) is a G protein-coupled cell surface receptor responsive to bile acids (BA) and different steroid hormones. TGR5 mRNA is detected almost ubiquitious in human and rodent tissues with a very high expression in gallbladder, liver and intestine. In liver, TGR5 is found in sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and cholangiocytes. Activation of TGR5 triggers an elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP and further downstream signalling. Key Messages: TGR5 exerts anti-inflammatory effects, protects cholangiocytes from BA-induced toxicity, promotes cholangiocyte secretion and proliferation and reduces portal perfusion pressure. Furthermore, TGR5 mediates gallbladder filling. TGR5 knockout mice have a smaller BA pool size with altered composition and develop more severe liver injury after BA feeding, common bile duct ligation or injection of lipopolysaccharide. The absence of TGR5 also reduces the proliferative and regenerative capacity after partial hepatectomy or liver damage. Stimulation of TGR5 signalling can improve steatohepatitis, portal hypertension and hepatic inflammation in rodent models of liver damage. However, TGR5 activation also promotes the proliferation of cystic and malignant-transformed cholangiocytes.TGR5 plays an important role in the protection of the liver from BA toxicity under cholestatic conditions. Stimulation of the receptor prevents excessive liver damage in rodent models of cholestasis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and inflammation and also promotes liver regeneration. However, the activation of TGR5-dependent signalling may also trigger proliferation and apoptosis resistance of cystic cholangiocytes and malignantly transformed cholangiocytes, thus promoting cyst growth in polycystic liver disease or progression of cholangiocarcinoma. Depending on the type of liver disease stimulation as well as inhibition of TGR5, signalling may present a useful therapeutic approach.