De Cosmo S, Mazzoccoli G, et al.
Department of Medical Sciences, Division of Internal Medicine and Chronobiology Unit, IRCCS "Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza" , San Giovanni Rotondo , Italy.
Frontiers in endocrinology. 2017.
Liver metabolic pathways are driven by the biological clock, and appropriate timing of 24-h patterns of metabolic gene expression as well as anabolic/catabolic processes with wake-related activity/feeding and sleep-related resting/fasting cycles preserves hepatic healthiness. The interplay among the liver metabolic pathways and the molecular clockwork is geared by the nuclear receptors, and ligand-dependent transcription factors that gauge the cellular nutritional status and redox balance, bind hormones and metabolites, and modulate the transcription of thousands target genes through their DNA-binding domain. Several nuclear receptors in the liver oscillate with circadian rhythmicity, and among these, the retinoid X receptors play a key role in metabolism regulation, intersecting with the cogs of the molecular clockwork.