Liver Effects of Clinical Drugs Differentiated in Human Liver Slices.

Vickers AE, Ulyanov AV, Fisher RL et al.

Human Translational Models LLC, P.O. Box 4593, Irvine, CA 92612, USA.

International journal of molecular sciences. Mar 2017.

Drugs with clinical adverse effects are compared in an ex vivo 3-dimensional multi-cellular human liver slice model. Functional markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, glutathione GSH and ATP levels, were affected by acetaminophen (APAP, 1 mM), diclofenac (DCF, 1 mM) and etomoxir (ETM, 100 μM). Drugs targeting mitochondria more than GSH were dantrolene (DTL, 10 μM) and cyclosporin A (CSA, 10 μM), while GSH was affected more than ATP by methimazole (MMI, 500 μM), terbinafine (TBF, 100 μM), and carbamazepine (CBZ 100 μM). Oxidative stress genes were affected by TBF (18%), CBZ, APAP, and ETM (12%-11%), and mitochondrial genes were altered by CBZ, APAP, MMI, and ETM (8%-6%). Apoptosis genes were affected by DCF (14%), while apoptosis plus necrosis were altered by APAP and ETM (15%). Activation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial energy, heat shock, ER stress, apoptosis, necrosis, DNA damage, immune and inflammation genes ranked CSA (75%), ETM (66%), DCF, TBF, MMI (61%-60%), APAP, CBZ (57%-56%), and DTL (48%). Gene changes in fatty acid metabolism, cholestasis, immune and inflammation were affected by DTL (51%), CBZ and ETM (44%-43%), APAP and DCF (40%-38%), MMI, TBF and CSA (37%-35%). This model advances multiple dosing in a human ex vivo model, plus functional markers and gene profile markers of drug induced human liver side-effects.


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