Hinrichs M, Weyland A, Bantel C et al.
Universitätsklinik für Anästhesiologie/Intensivmedizin/Notfallmedizin/Schmerztherapie, Klinikum Oldenburg AöR, Rahel-Straus-Str. 10, 26133, Oldenburg, Deutschland. email@example.com.
Schmerz (Berlin, Germany). Mar 2017.
In many European countries and particularly in Germany, piritramide is the first choice opioid analgesic for the management of postoperative and posttraumatic pain.The aim of this study was to review the pharmacological properties of piritramide and to evaluate whether these result in any clinical advantages with respect to effectiveness, safety and side effect profile compared to other strong opioids.A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar and 27 articles published between 1961 and 2015 were retrieved and included in this review.Piritramide is a strong opioid that can only be administered parenterally. After intravenous injection it is effective after 17 min with pain relief lasting for up to 6 h. It is metabolized in the liver to inactive compounds, which is advantageous compared to morphine where active metabolites can accumulate in patients with renal failure. Piritramide is highly lipophilic resulting in a long context-sensitive half-life, making it unsuitable for continuous infusions. Studies further suggest that the side effect profile of piritramide is comparable to morphine.So far there is little evidence to support the widespread use of piritramide as first-line opioid analgesic for postoperative pain management in Germany. Especially lacking are in-depth studies about its mechanisms of action, receptor pharmacology, dose-response relationships and clinical dosing regimens. It is therefore questionable why piritramide is given priority.