Er Dedekarginoglu B, Savas Bozbas S, Ulubay G et al.
Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.
Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. Feb 2017.
Aspergillosis is a common fungal infection among solid-organ transplant recipients. Even after awareness of this infection occurs, there are still gaps in nonculture diagnostic tests, which can delay treatment initiation. Here, we aimed to define the common traits of pulmonary aspergillosis infection among solid-organ transplant recipients, thus shedding light on prevention and early diagnosis.We conducted a database search of patients at Baskent University who had a positive aspergillosis culture between January 2010 and March 2016. Among 20 patients identified, 15 (mean age of 50.93 ± 11.17 y, 2 female and 13 male patients) with solid-organ transplant were included in the study.Of the 15 study patients, 7 were heart transplant, 6 were kidney transplant, and 2 were liver transplant recipients. Three patients had positive aspergillosis cultures from extrapulmonary specimens (1 brain biopsy and 2 wound swap cultures). Other patients with positive cultures were from bronchoalveolar lavage (6 patients), sputum (4 patients), both bronchoalveolar lavage and sputum (1 patient), and deep tracheal aspiration specimen (1 patient). Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common species. Mean hospitalization duration was 31.53 days (range, 2-135 d). Although all patients had positive culture results, 7 patients (46.7%) had negative galactomannan test results at the time of culture specimen collection. Positive galactomannan test results were statistically higher in 6 heart transplant patients (P = .045). All patients had fever at presentation, and 13 patients had been referred to the pulmonary disease department before positive culture results were obtained.Risk factors for pulmonary aspergillosis and its clinical presentation in solid-organ transplant recipients are still unclear. Although the expected time for aspergillosis infection in solid-organ transplant recipients is 6 months after transplant, clinicians must remember the nonspecific presentation of infections in these patients and be aware of the reliability of diagnostic tools.