Garla V, Yanes-Cardozo L, Lien LF et al.
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders. Mar 2017.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are intricately intertwined. DM is the most common cause of CKD. Adequate control of DM is necessary for prevention of progression of CKD, while careful management of the metabolic abnormalities in CKD will assist in achieving better control of DM. Two of the key organs involved in glucose production are the kidney and the liver. Furthermore, the kidney also plays a role in glucose filtration and reabsorption. In CKD, monitoring of glycemic control using traditional methods such as Hemoglobin A1c (Hba1c) must be done with caution secondary to associated hematological abnormalities in CKD. With regard to medication management in the care of patients with DM, CKD has significant effects. For example, the dosages of oral and non-insulin anti-hyperglycemic agents often need to be modified according to renal function. Insulin metabolism is altered in CKD, and a reduction in insulin dose is almost always needed. Dialysis also affects various aspects of glucose homeostasis, necessitating appropriate changes in therapy. Due to the aforementioned factors glycemic management in patients with DM and CKD can be quiet challenging.