Kanno Y, Yatsu T, Yamashita N et al.
Department of Molecular Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Miyama 2-2-1, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510, Japan. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. Mar 2017.
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a key regulator of the induction of drug metabolizing enzymes. PXR has been studied for its importance in drug-drug or herb-drug interactions, and it is also a molecular target for the treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases.This study aims to determine new natural PXR-ligands from traditional plant medicines.The PXR activation activity was measured by a mammalian one hybrid assay of PXR. Identification of the active compound from Alisma rhizome (the rhizomes of Alisma orientale) was carried out by bioassay-guided fractionation method. The transcriptional activity of the liver-enriched nuclear receptors was measured by the luciferase reporter assay. The interaction between the SRC-1 and PXR was measured by a mammalian 2-hybrid assay. The expression of endogenous CYP3A4 mRNA in both cultured hPXR-overexpressing hepatoma cells and human primary hepatocytes were measured by quantitative RT-PCR method.The extract of Alisma rhizome showed the most potent activation activity by screening of a library of medicinal plant extracts. Alisol B 23-acetate (ABA) was identified to be the active compound of Alisma rhizome. ABA caused a concentration-dependent increase on the PXR-dependent transactivation of a luciferase reporter gene, but did not affect the ligand binding activity of the liver-enriched nuclear receptors, such as CAR, LXR, FXR, PPARα, PPARδ and PPARγ, emphasizing that ABA is a potent and specific agonist of PXR. With ABA treatment, the direct interaction between the ligand-binding domain of PXR and the receptor interaction domain of SRC1 was observed. ABA also induced the expression of endogenous CYP3A4 mRNA in both cultured hPXR-overexpressing hepatoma cells and human primary hepatocytes.Since the rhizomes of Alisma orientale are used for a wide range of ailments in traditional Chinese medicine and Japanese Kampo medicine, this study could possibly extend into the clinical usage of these medicines via the mechanism of PXR activation.