Oxidative stress and related biomarkers in cupric and cuprous chloride-treated rainbow trout.

Elia AC, Magara G, Righetti M et al.

Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, 06123, Perugia, Italy. antonia.elia@unipg.it.

Environmental science and pollution research international. Mar 2017.

We examined the time-course stress responses in the liver of rainbow trout exposed to cuprous chloride (CuCl) and cupric chloride (CuCl2). The treatment groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of CuCl or CuCl2 (both at a dose of 0.01 and 0.05 mg/kg); the control group received only the physiologic solution vehicle. Liver tissue samples were analyzed for total copper, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glyoxalases, and lactate dehydrogenase at 3, 6, and 9 days post-injection. Total glutathione, metallothionein, and malondialdehyde levels were also measured. The time course of metal accumulation differed between the groups; no dose-response relationship for metal load was found. Both copper species elicited significant changes in oxidative stress markers and in metal trapping. Copper underwent adaptive shifts in glutathione and metallothionein concentrations. The defense strategy primarily versus CuCl2 first involved glutathione, with a peak in metallothionein levels at day 6 for CuCl2 (at both doses) and for CuCl (0.05 mg/kg). Early stimulation of lipid peroxidation was noted after treatment with the higher copper dose and at day 9 after treatment with the lower dose of both CuCl and CuCl2. Antioxidant enzyme activity was impaired due to a more or a less severe oxidative stress condition in relation to the copper species and exposure time. Copper dynamics, in terms of metal accumulation and homeostatic regulation, is noticeably complex. The present findings may advance our understanding of the effects of both copper species on the antioxidant response of rainbow trout.